What Can You Do With an Astronomy Degree?

jobs with astronomy degree

An astronomy degree opens doors to a variety of exciting career paths. With a strong foundation in mathematics and computer skills, as well as a deep understanding of the universe, astronomy graduates have the opportunity to make significant contributions to the field of science and beyond.

From research-oriented roles in laboratories to working in museums and observatories, the skills gained in an astronomy degree program are highly sought after. Additionally, career paths in science education, management, computing, instrumentation, and science writing are popular choices for those with a background in astronomy. Let’s explore some of the most popular and rewarding career options for astronomy degree holders.

What Is an Astronomy Degree?

An astronomy degree is an academic program that focuses on the study of the universe, stars, planets, and other celestial objects. This field of science combines elements of mathematics and physics to explore the fundamental properties and behaviors of these celestial bodies. Graduates holding an astronomy degree are equipped with a strong foundation in math, physics, and problem-solving skills, making them suitable for varied career paths.

Both Bachelor of Arts (BA) and Bachelor of Science (BS) degrees are offered in astronomy, providing students with different focuses and opportunities. A BA degree typically includes a broader range of subjects, such as humanities and social sciences, making it ideal for students who wish to pursue careers like science education and science writing. A BS degree goes deeper into math, physics and the technical aspects of astronomy, which prepares students for research-focused careers and advanced studies in the field.

Many institutions also offer joint or combined programs, such as Astronomy and Physics, Astrophysics, or Astronomy and Geophysics in addition to standalone astronomy degrees. These interdisciplinary programs allow students to gain a more comprehensive understanding of related scientific fields which opens up additional career opportunities.

Career Paths for Astronomy Degree Graduates

Academia and Research

Astronomy graduates often pursue careers in academia, working as professors or researchers at universities and institutions. They conduct experiments, write research papers, and seek to expand our understanding of the universe.

Aerospace Industry

With a strong background in physics and math, astronomy graduates are well-equipped for careers in the aerospace industry, working for government agencies like NASA or private companies such as SpaceX. They can contribute to spacecraft design, mission planning, and other technical aspects of space exploration!

Science Communication

Astronomy degree holders can also excel in the field of science communication, sharing their love of the cosmos and scientific discoveries with the general public. Roles in this field include science journalists, and public outreach coordinators for observatories or space agencies.

Planetariums and Science Museums

Planetariums and science museums offer unique opportunities for astronomy graduates to educate and inspire people of all ages. They can work as exhibit designers, educators, or planetarium show presenters, helping visitors understand complex astronomical concepts in an accessible way.

Observatories and Research Facilities

Many astronomers find employment at observatories and research facilities, operating telescopes or other sophisticated equipment to collect and analyze data from distant stars, galaxies, and other celestial objects.

Data Analysis

Astronomy graduates possess strong data analysis and computational skills, which can be applied to many industries outside of astronomy. They can work as data analysts, or as computer programmers in fields such as finance, climate science, and geophysics.


Lastly, astronomy degree holders may choose to share their passion for the subject by becoming teachers at various levels, from middle school to high school, or even in science education roles at colleges and universities.

Job Profiles and Descriptions


Astronomers use their knowledge of space and celestial bodies to conduct research, perform observations, and interpret data about the universe. They work in observatories, laboratories, or even applied fields to observe space debris or develop new technology for the military. Their primary duties include planning, designing, and conducting observational experiments, as well as analyzing telescope, radio, and satellite data.


Astrophysicists, like astronomers, study space and the physical properties of celestial bodies. They use advanced mathematical models, simulations, and theories to explain the universe’s origins and evolution. Their work in technical laboratories and hands-on research can lead to many different career paths, including academic research, government roles, or private sector employment.

Data Scientist

With a strong background in mathematics and computer skills, astronomy graduates can also become data scientists. In this role, they will analyze large amounts of data to identify patterns, trends, and insights that can lead to more informed decision-making. They can work in various industries such as finance, healthcare, retail, and many more.

Science Writer

An astronomy degree can also open doors to a career in science writing. Science writers create engaging content to explain complex scientific concepts to the general public, making it easier for non-experts to understand. They can work for magazines, websites, news outlets, or even as freelance writers, depending on their interests and expertise.


Teaching is another popular career choice for astronomy majors who can become faculty members at colleges or universities, where they’ll conduct research, publish academic papers, and teach astronomy courses. Additionally, they may teach math or physics courses, depending on the institution’s needs.

Required Skills and Qualities

Individuals pursuing a career in astronomy need have a diverse skill set to ensure success in the field. In this section, we discuss some of the essential skills and qualities you need to possess for an astronomy career.

Analytical Skills

As an astronomer, you need to be able to analyze complex data and mathematical calculations in order to understand the workings of the universe. This requires strong mathematical knowledge and a keen sense of critical thinking, which will help you interpret different scenarios and answer specific research questions.

Communication Skills

Effective communication skills are essential in any career, including astronomy. You need to be able to communicate your research findings and theories clearly to colleagues, students, and the public. This includes both written and verbal communication, as well as the ability to present complex ideas in an understandable manner.

Programming Abilities

Computer programming plays a crucial role in astronomy, with software being used to simulate astronomical events, process data, and control scientific instruments. So, having a strong background in programming and computer science is very beneficial for the aspiring astronomer.

Problem Solving

Astronomy requires creative problem-solving and reasoning skills. You need to be able to think critically and devise innovative solutions to problems while considering multiple possibilities. Developing these problem-solving abilities is crucial for success in any astronomy career.

How to Make Yourself Employable in Astronomy

Some examples of places that hire people with astronomy degrees are:

  • Universities
  • Colleges
  • Government Agencies
  • NASA
  • Observatories

With an astronomy degree, there are various steps you can take to enhance your employability and increase your chances of landing a job in the field, including:

Internships and Work Experience

Participating in internships and gaining work experience in relevant roles can boost your resume and strengthen your skills as an astronomy graduate. During and after your studies, seek opportunities to work in research labs, observatories, and other science-related organizations. This hands-on experience can be invaluable when you enter the job market. If your school has a coop program that is a great way to find these kinds of opportunities.


Networking plays a significant role in finding job opportunities and learning from professionals in your field. Join professional societies such as the International Astronomical Union or the American Association of Variable Star Observers, attend conferences and workshops, and connect with peers and experienced astronomers. Building a strong professional network can lead to career opportunities as well as providing insight into the industry.

Additional Certifications

Depending on your career goals, obtaining additional certifications can further develop your expertise and increase your employability. Examples include programming languages, data analysis tools, or specific research methods relevant to your preferred career path.

Pursuing Postgraduate Education

If you are interested in pursuing a career in research or academia, consider furthering your education with a master’s or doctoral degree in astronomy or a related field. Gaining an advanced degree improves your job prospects while expanding your knowledge and deepening your understanding of the subject matter.

Famous Astronomers

Throughout history, the world has produced some very well-known astronomers who have given us insight into the endless abyss of space. Just a few examples of notable astronomers across the ages are listed here :

Eratosthenes (276 BCE-195 BCE) discovered that the planet Earth is round, not flat, contrary to popular belief at the time.

Claudius Ptolemy (AD 90- 168) created the geocentric model of space, implying that all masses revolve around Earth, which has since been disproved. We now use the heliocentric model, created by Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), noting that the planets of our solar system revolve around the sun.

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) studied the planets and stars, studying both a supernova and a comet as closely as possible at the time, keeping track of their measurements and what travel [if any] each did, which led to the disproving of the common belief that outer space never changes.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) is best known for his work on drastically improving the invention of the telescope and charting stars and planets.

Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) developed the three main laws of physics, or forces applied to objects, by studying the concept of gravity.

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) is known for his eye-opening concepts of space and time, how the laws of physics may be the same throughout the entire universe, and how gravity distorts space-time, making it unlike the speed of time on Earth.


Pursuing an astronomy degree opens up a world of possibilities for those passionate about exploring the mysteries of the universe. As an astronomy graduate, some popular career choices include astrophysicist, astronomer, and academic roles such as research and teaching positions.

Astronomy students develop a wide range of skills throughout their studies, including research, technical, and problem-solving abilities. These skill sets are applicable to various industries beyond astronomy, such as technology, finance, and engineering. This makes astronomy graduates valuable assets in the workforce.

observational astrophysicist | theoretcial astrophysicist

To become a physicist or astronomer, one typically needs a Ph.D. Astronomy is not an easy field to get into. If you are interested in pursuing a career in astronomy, consider the time, money, and dedication you will need to put into your education in order to outshine others in the field.

If you possess excellent time management and analytical skills, you may have an advantage over others looking for jobs in the field of astronomy. Dual degree programs may be particularly helpful in reducing the time it may take you to earn your desired degrees.

Entry-level positions might be available with a bachelor’s or master’s degree, depending on the specific role and the job market at the time. Educational choices made during high school and university can significantly impact one’s career path in astronomy.

An astronomy degree offers exciting opportunities to contribute to scientific discoveries and expand human knowledge. Although it will be a challenge, with dedication, commitment, and a passion for uncovering the secrets of the cosmos, astronomy graduates can embark on fulfilling and influential careers in their chosen fields.

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